Drug ID: 1d00000047
Drug Name: Alfentanil Hydrochloride
Generic Names: Alfenta
Legal Status: Non Opioid Prescription only drug
Indication for Mother: Category C
Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
Recommended Dose: The recommended dose range is 8 to 245mcg/kg.
Recommended In: This medication is a strong analgesic, prescribed for relieving pain and induction of anesthesia in specific situations. It provides analgesic protection against hemodynamic responses to surgical stress with recovery times.
Directions For Use: It comes as a solution for injection, to be administered by a healthcare provider into the vein.
Storage: Store at 20° to 25°C.
Dosage Forms: Intravenous Injection
Side Effects: Most Common - Respiratory depression and skeletal muscle rigidity.
Gastrointestinal - Nausea, vomiting.
Heart - Abnormal heart rhythm, slow heart rate, high blood pressure, low blood pressure, fast heart rate.
Musculoskeletal - Chest wall rigidity, skeletal muscle movements.
Respiratory - Postoperative respiratory depression.
Central Nervous System - Blurred vision, dizziness, sleepiness/postoperative sedation.
In Case of Overdose: Overdosage would be manifested by extension of the pharmacological actions of alfentanil hydrochloride as with other potent opioid analgesics. No experience of overdosage with alfenta was reported during clinical trials. Intravenous administration of an opioid antagonist such as naloxone should be employed as a specific antidote to manage respiratory depression.
The duration of respiratory depression following overdosage with alfenta may be longer than the duration of action of the opioid antagonist. Administration of an opioid antagonist should not preclude immediate establishment of a patent airway, administration of oxygen, and assisted or controlled ventilation as indicated for hypoventilation or apnea. If respiratory depression is associated with muscular rigidity, a neuromuscular blocking agent may be required to facilitate assisted or controlled ventilation. Intravenous fluids and vasoactive agents may be required to manage hemodynamic instability.
Avoid If: Caution should be exercised in patients with history of kidney, liver, heart, or thyroid disease, seizures, asthma, lung inflammation, during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
It may cause blurred vision, dizziness or drowsiness, do not drive a car or operate machinery while taking this medication.
Avoid alcohol consumption.
Contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity
Drug Interaction: Both the magnitude and duration of central nervous system and cardiovascular effects may be enhanced when alfentanil is administered in combination with other CNS depressants such as barbiturates, tranquilizers, opioids, or inhalation general anesthetics. Postoperative respiratory depression may be enhanced or prolonged by these agents. In such cases of combined treatment, the dose of one or both agents should be reduced. Limited clinical experience indicates that requirements for volatile inhalation anesthetics are reduced by 30 to 50% for the first sixty (60) minutes following alfentanil induction. The concomitant use of erythromycin with alfentanil can significantly inhibit alfenta clearance and may increase the risk of prolonged or delayed respiratory depression.
Cimetidine reduces the clearance of alfentanil. Therefore smaller alfenta doses will be required with prolonged administration and the duration of action of alfenta may be extended.
Perioperative administration of drugs affecting hepatic blood flow or enzyme function may reduce plasma clearance and prolong recovery.