Drug ID: 1d00000115
Drug Name: Apraclonidine
Generic Names: Alfa | Alfa Drops | Alfadrops DS | Iopidine
Category: Antiglaucoma Agents
Legal Status: Non Opioid Prescription only drug
Indication for Mother: Category C
Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
Recommended Dose: One to two drops 0.5% ophthalmic solution should be instilled into the affected eye(s) three times daily.
Recommended In: This medication is an alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, prescribed for short-term treatment of glaucoma. It lowers the pressure in the eye by decreasing the amount of fluid produced within the eye.
Directions For Use: It comes as eye drops to instill into the affected eyes as directed by your physician.
Storage: Store it in refrigerator (2 - 27°C). Protect from freezing and light.
Dosage Forms: Eye drops
Side Effects: Most Common - Increased blood flow, itching, tearing, discomfort, lid edema, dry mouth, and foreign body sensation.
Eye - Blanching, blurred vision, eye inflammation, discharge from eyes, dry eye, foreign body sensation, lid edema and tearing.
Central Nervous System - Abnormal coordination, weakness, dizziness, depression, headache, sleeplessness, uneasiness, tingling, nervousness and drowsiness.
Heart - Abnormal heart rhythm and chest pain.
Respiratory - Asthma, nose inflammation, difficulty in breathing and dry nose.
Gastrointestinal - Constipation, nausea and inflammation of pharynx.
Musculoskeletal - Muscle pain.
In Case of Overdose: Ingestion of IOPIDINE 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution has been reported to cause bradycardia, drowsiness, and hypothermia.
Accidental or intentional ingestion of oral clonidine has been reported to cause apnea, arrhythmias, asthenia, bradycardia, conduction defects, diminished or absent reflexes, dryness of the mouth, hypotension, hypothermia, hypoventilation, irritability, lethargy, miosis, pallor, respiratory depression, sedation or coma, seizure, somnolence, transient hypertension, and vomiting.
Treatment of an oral overdose includes supportive and symptomatic therapy; a patent airway should be maintained. Hemodialysis is of limited value since a maximum of 5% of circulating drug is removed.
Avoid If: Caution should be exercised in patients with history of depression, sugar, high blood pressure, stroke, Raynaud's disease, inflammation of the blood vessels, fainting, heart, liver, or kidney disease, who are taking other medications, children, during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
It may cause drowsiness, dizziness, or blurred vision, do not drive a car or operate machinery while taking this medication.
Avoid alcohol consumption.
Contraindicated in patients who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors), and hypersensitivity.
Drug Interaction: Apraclonidine should not be used in patients receiving MAO inhibitors. Although no specific drug interactions with topical glaucoma drugs or systemic medications were identified in clinical studies of Apraclonidine 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution, the possibility of an additive or potentiating effect with CNS depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, sedatives, anesthetics) should be considered. Tricyclic antidepressants have been reported to blunt the hypotensive effect of systemic clonidine. It is not known whether the concurrent use of these agents with apraclonidine can lead to a reduction in IOP lowering effect. Caution, however, is advised in patients taking tricyclic antidepressants which can affect the metabolism and uptake of circulating amines.
An additive hypotensive effect has been reported with the combination of systemic clonidine and neuroleptic therapy. Systemic clonidine may inhibit the production of catecholamines in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and mask the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia.
Since apraclonidine may reduce pulse and blood pressure, caution in using drugs such as beta-blockers (ophthalmic and systemic), antihypertensives, and cardiac glycosides is advised. Patients using cardiovascular drugs concurrently with Apraclonidine 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution should have pulse and blood pressures frequently monitored. Caution should be exercised with simultaneous use of clonidine and other similar pharmacologic agents.