Drug ID: 1d00000137
Drug Name: Atropine Ophthalmic
Generic Names: Atp | Atrisolon | Atro | Atron | Atropine E | Atropine S | Atroren-P | Atrosun | Topin | Tropine | Atropine Care | Atropisol | Isopto | Ocu-Tropine
Legal Status: Non-opioid prescription only drug
Indication for Mother: Category C
Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
Recommended Dose: As 0.5-1% solution: 1-2 drops 4 times/day.
Recommended In: This medication is an anticholinergic agent, prescribed for inflammatory eye disorders. It is used to dilate (widen) the pupil.
Directions For Use: It comes as eye drops and eye ointment, to instill over the affected eyes as directed by your physician.
Storage: Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture.
Dosage Forms: Eye Drops | Eye Ointment
Side Effects: Eye irritation and redness, swelling of the eyelids, sensitivity to bright light, dry mouth, red or dry eye and blurred vision.
In Case of Overdose: Serious overdosage with atropine is characterized by widespread paralysis of parasympathetically innervated organs. Dry mucous membranes, widely dilated and nonresponsive pupils, tachycardia, fever and cutaneous flush are especially prominent, as are mental and neurological symptoms. Disorientation, mania, hallucinations, gait disturbances and symptoms may last 48 hours or longer. In instances of severe intoxication, respiratory depression, coma, circulatory collapse and death may occur.
Supportive treatment should be administered as indicated. If respiration is depressed, artificial respiration with oxygen is necessary. Ice bags, alcohol sponges or a hypothermia blanket may be required to reduce fever, especially in children. Catheterization may be necessary if urinary retention occurs. Since atropine elimination takes place through the kidney, output must be maintained and increased if possible, however, dialysis has not been shown to be helpful in overdose situations. Intravenous fluids may be indicated. Because of the affected person's photophobia, the room should be darkened.
In the event of toxic overdosage, a short-acting barbiturate or diazepam may be given as needed to control marked excitement and convulsions. Large doses for sedation should be avoided because central depressant action may coincide with the depression occurring late in atropine poisoning. Central stimulants are not recommended. Physostigmine, given as an atropine antidote by slow intravenous injection of 1 to 4 mg (0.5 to 1.0 mg in children), rapidly abolishes delirium and coma caused by large doses of atropine in most situations. Since physostigmine has a short duration of action, the patient may again lapse into coma after one or two hours and repeated doses are likely to be required. Neostigmine, pilocarpine and methacholine are of little real benefit, since they do not penetrate the blood-brain barrier.
Avoid If: Caution should be exercised in patients with history of down syndrome, numbness, prostate enlargement, difficulty in urinating, any allergy, who are taking other medications, during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Avoid contact with mouth; if it is swallowed becomes harmful.
It may cause blurred vision, do not drive a car or operate machinery while taking this medication.
Patient may develop with photosensitivity; to avoid this problem wear sunglasses.
Contraindicated in patients with narrow angle glaucoma (increased eye pressure), who are using soft lenses and hypersensitivity.
Drug Interaction: When atropine and pralidoxime are used together, the signs of atropinization (flushing, mydriasis, tachycardia, dryness of the mouth and nose) may occur earlier than might be expected than when atropine is used alone because pralidoxime may potentiate the effect of atropine.
The following precautions should be kept in mind in the treatment of anticholinesterase poisoning although they do not bear directly on the use of atropine and pralidoxime. Since barbiturates are potentiated by the anticholinesterases, they should be used cautiously in the treatment of convulsions.